Picnic in Paghman

Today Samiullah brought me and his cousins to Paghman, an area just west of Kabul. It is the favorite Friday-picnic spot for Kabulis, so we shared the mountain site with about ten thousand fellow citizens.

As we headed west through Kabul we passed through the Kota-e Sangi commercial district, which is dominated by Hazaras. This photo is for Ananya, who questions the mainstreaming of microfinance. Indeed it has become quite institutionalized here!

Beyond Kota-e Sangi, at the edge of KhushhalKhan Mena (an upscale neighborhood), is the first refugee camp I have seen since being back in Kabul. These folks have been urban refugees going on five years now–which, contrary to the American sense, means they have fled into the city as a safe haven.

Paghman is famous as a place where the Afghans gave the Soviets a very hard time. The scenery is very reminiscent of alpine valleys on the east side of the Sierra such as Big Pine creek; but among the trees nearly all the buildings are ruins. They make great picnic spots. This boy asked for money; he carries a steel pot with coals and incense in it (span-dudi). Sami gave him some in exchange for lighting a cigarette; I gave him some for taking this photo. Remarkably handsome fellow, but his circumstances aren’t too good.

Heading back from Paghman…

Do you remember those little orange UNICEF boxes we used to bring around during Halloween in the 1970s? Well, the UN Children’s Education Fund is still around, making perhaps the best investment in humanity there is. This is a regional school for Paghman. As I understand it, donations are down, including formal U.S. funding commitments to the UN. In the long run, the Afghan state should provide all the primary education in the country (as neighboring Pakistan is failing to do). But for now, the only low-cost alternative here–as in underfunded California–is parochial schools. In local parlance that translates to madrasa-e dini.

Little orange boxes, anyone?

Construction in Kart-e Sakhi

Karte Sakhi is adjacent to Kabul University. As with Deh Mazang, and most of Kabul, it is a vast (re)construction site. The houses look neoclassical–not in the European sense, but as if ancient Mediterraneans were building their houses with materials available today. I like the new warm color palette, compared to the popular 1970s Kabul-green. I’m not sure about the reflective surfacing, but maybe I am too old-school. This is the latest.

And the quality of construction is often very good. I saw this house several days ago and noticed the bituminous layer they were putting in before finishing the foundation walls.

The crew asked me to take pictures of them, I could not say no.

This gentleman asked a coworker to hand him one of the trowels, so he could be shown with the tools of his trade.

In 2006 I see a new trend: light steel beams replacing heavy wood beams for primary spans. For Afghanistan this is good news: the whole area east of Kabul was being deforested for reconstruction back in 2003. If nothing else, at least locals can now use that wood as heating fuel in cold winters, although that issue also needs to be addressed. As does tie-in reinforcing for this structure. Step by step…

Down the same street are two houses, one older and one rebuilt, which have toilet-rooms backed up to the street. Note the removable panels with IAM stamped on them, where farmers used to shovel out the humanure. With urban expansion, farmers do not come around so frequently, so sewage overflows into the street drain. This is a problem which individual families cannot solve, nor even whole neighborhoods.

Sunlight

Here I am in the lovely, garden-like campus of Kabul University. Within the trees is the Faculty of Agriculture, and the field in the foreground will be used as a demonstration/laboratory field once the irrigation system is restored. In the background is Deh Naw (new village), on the south flank of Kuh-e Ali Abad.

The house on the left is the same one pictured on the Week 1 page; in the background are houses marching up the slopes of Kuh-e Asmayi. At night they look very much like houses in the Mission/Diamond Heights area of San Francisco viewed from Potrero Hill. I run the risk of romanticizing and aestheticizing these hillside settlements, because I do think they are at least as attractive as Italian hill-towns. So as a countermeasure, I should point out that clay-brick construction perched on bare mountainsides in a major seismic zone is a recipe for major human disaster. Just ask the Iranians and Pakistanis. Somehow these buildings need to be stabilized. Hopefully with the help of Abohassan Asteneh-Asl and the Middle East Earthquake Hazard Reduction initiative (MEHR), something can be done.

The prodigious dust in the air makes for some pretty intense sunset colors!

A day in the life of Kabul. So much construction is going on in this block debris and materials cover what few sidewalks there were. Also, the Municipality has not delivered garbage bins to this part of the city, so you can see the designated trash-dumping area at left.

Images and text (c) 2006 Pietro Calogero.

Reconstruction

The neighbors of our guesthouse are rebuilding the lot-line wall to make it higher. When A4T rented this guesthouse, it was the only inhabitable building on the block. Still, about one third of the lots are just ruins; but construction proceeds apace on both sides of us here.

I took this photo in 2003 on Dar ul-Aman Avenue.The housing shortage at that time was exemplified by the reoccupation of the ground floor and far bays of an obviously unstable structure. Note the children sitting in the opening just to the left of the cart on the sidewalk. This building had been damaged in the factional fighting in 1992-1994, and had been left as a ruin as much of southern Kabul was for a decade. But note that the Avenue had just been repaved, and those are concrete blocks on the left, and new bricks on the right ready for use in rebuilding.

This is a building just one block up on the same avenue. Note that the last two bays have been restored, and the building behind is completely new. The shops in the middle of the photo are gate-fabricators, and you can see their products leaned up on the left. Still, no-one has hired the heavy equipment necessary to clear away the collapsed concrete slab on the left end of the older building.

The ubiquitous green bicycles of Kabul are made in China, out of iron. Often a passenger sits on the back rack, but I have seen this before: transporting nine tires at once. Tires are repeatedly repaired and when they are irreparable, they are used as fuel to fire bricks in the Bagrame area just east of Kabul. You have probably seen photos of that production process.

Two major means of moving material around Kabul are the flatbed cart and the wheelbarrow. The alternate design of the cart is to have no push-bar and hitch it to a donkey.

Sometime in mid-May of this year Kabul Municipality finally received some 1-yard trash boxes that are designed to work with a trash truck (which also arrived!). Solid waste was a serious problem in 2003 and continues to be so to this day. I will try to find out how the whole system is working out.

Images and text (c) 2006 Pietro Calogero.

People

Here are Engineer Dehyar and Sabri, whom I worked with in 2003. At that time one of my tasks was to go through the International Building Code and identify passages for translation from English. The two sections that seemed useful were 1) the approach to exiting design, and 2) post-construction testing of concrete structures (a lot of buildings were going up at the time with no oversight at all!). We also discussed land use regulation, although I warned the team away from adopting American-style zoning. When I visited this last week, they had just completed a zoning plan for Kabul. I look forward to seeing the result!

On the day that I visited, Eng. Dehyar and Sabri were working on accessibility design standards for public and commercial buildings. In a city with so many disabled people, I really hope this policy gets implemented.

Khwaja Muhammad Nader was one of the bad-guy leads in the movie “Osama.” He is a total sweetheart!

And just an odd note: this is an image from the Roshan Mobile-phone company website (see here). Separated at birth? At least you can see why so many Afghans think I am Afghan. It isn’t just the beard! One explanation is that Alexander’s army left a lot of Greek descendants in what are now northern and eastern Afghanistan.

It is hard for tourists to resist photographing women in burqas. As I mentioned in week one, their meaning is very ambiguous now. And elimination of burqas (and chaduri for that matter) might mean very little in terms of gendered power-relations. For the outsider, even though these women were just conversing as they walked with their children, I feel a strong sense of uncertainty being near people whom I cannot see. Venice must have felt like this before Napoleon banned the capes and masks that were worn by men and women alike until 1798. Members of the Revolutionary Association of Women of Afghanistan found burqas to be very useful in the 1990s, an perhaps still are using them now.

Images and text (c) 2006 Pietro Calogero.

Kabul old and new

I arrived in Kabul on Weds, May 31, two days after the worst rioting in the city in several years. News of the riot began to emerge several hours after I had begun my journey, so it was disconcerting to be in transit, glimpsing news in airports to find out how bad the situation was. By logging into wifi hotspots I could access BBC news, and saw that the situation stabilized quickly so I continued on to Kabul. This is the first time I have been back since October 2003.

Right now Kabul is a shocking juxtaposition of old an new. In the picture above, the house on the left was blasted apart during the factional fighting between mujahid forces in 1992-1994. The blue and white curtain serves as a screen for squatters who are living in the shell of the house. The house on the right, just next door, is brand new and palatial, perhaps 400 sq.m. (4000 sq feet). This neighborhood is the transition area between Deh Mazang and Karte-4, which was a wealthy area in the 1970s, and the families who fled retained title to their land. As they return from the United States, Germany, etc., house-by-house the neighborhood is re-gentrifying. Unless the squatters in the forground remain as house-staff, they are likely to be displaced when the ruined house is rebuilt.

Commercial reconstruction is also proceeding. In this case shopowners have restored individual bays in a large commercial building whose upper storeys remain wrecked and unstablized.

But just down the street, this is a sample of new architecture. As urban design, it looks good: low-rise, high-density, residential over commercial. The balconies provide a nice layering of facade texture, and offset the loss of transparency of mirrored windows. Reflective glass is a good energy-efficiency strategy here, and maintains traditional Afghan domestic modesty while providing a lot of daylighting and eyes on the street.

It is interesting to see what is left as this neighborhood is being rebuilt. In this area there are new lampposts, but this old one was left as a piece of highly expressive sculpture. Again, this damage dates from more than twelve years ago. Perhaps the most psychologically damaging experience for Kabulis was to live among the wreckage of that horrible moment for another ten years. Neither mujahidin nor Taliban did any reconstruction in this area, so it remained an inhabited ruin where wood and metal hardware were stripped from abandoned buildings, leaving very barren shells.

But there is a lot of hope in Afghanistan now, even with the rise of insurgent attacks across the country this spring. On June 1 I met Roshanak Wardak, a member of the upper house of Parliament (Meshrano Jirga). She is an OBGYN in Wardak province, and apperently the local leaders decided they wanted her to represent them. So various candidates financed from Kabul held all sorts of events and essentially sought to buy votes, while locals put together informal gatherings for her. On the day that I met her she had just come from a meeting with President Karzai in which he asked the MPs why they had rejected the latest budget (fiscal year 1385, solar hijra calendar). She identified a variety of items in detail, and the Ministry of Finance will re-evaluate. It seems that the government (President and Ministers) are having difficulty adjusting to having a powerful Parliament which they must answer to.

That evening, Dr. Wardak returned to her province to deliver more babies. Apparently, expectant mothers are now trying to time their births for when she is back in her hospital!

I wanted to show this photo, but not first, because it does represent some of life in Kabul but it runs the risk of reinforcing a stereotype. They boy on the left pushing a wheelbarrow: yes, child labor is widespread. This is a serious problem because it deprives children of time for education–both class time and homework. Like housing, this is a complex issue that needs to be approached in an integrated manner. The woman on the right: yes, women do wear burqas in Kabul now, although much less than in 2003 from what I can see. And as a more or less voluntary choice, wearing a burqa now can mean many things, including a woman who just does not want to be stared at by men.

I took this photo from one of the new pedestrian overpasses in the city center, initially to show the contrast between the old neighborhood of Deh Afghanan on the left and the new commercial building on the right. But the foreground view of men in the street is almost a Breugel-like illustration of a day in the life of Kabul. On the left, yes, a man with one leg; but in the middle, a man on a mobile phone; and on the right, three young men who look like they are just leaving school or work. On the far side of the street you get some sense of the intense sidewalk-commercial activity that occurs in commercial areas.

Images and text (c) 2006 Pietro Calogero. This page updated: 10 June 2006

Colonizing Luna, Part 7: Remote Operations

REMOTELY-OPERATED MACHINERY

Originally written: 8 August 2005. Previous | Overview | Next

Beyond the earth’s atmosphere, most exterior operations will be done using mechanical remotes. Machines can operate outside without worrying about radiation shielding, pressurized suits, or extreme variations in temperature. The main problem is how to control and guide them for non-routine operations. The simplest solution is to have a nearby human operator. Good remote-guidance and stereo-video interfaces will need to be developed, but only once: the same interface could be used for a variety of remotely-controlled machines working outside of satellites, vehicles, and on the Lunar surface. When signal-delay is not a problem, such as for simpler tasks that can be partially-automated (like digging), Earth-based operators can be used at lower cost.

Standard operator interface:

On the remote itself, this includes stereo video cameras and mechanical arms and hands, probably proportioned close to those of the human operator. Therefore the operator can wear stereo-video goggles, and ‘mirroring’ armatures on their arms and hands. Or perhaps a simpler interface can just use video-screens, keyboards and joysticks.

Crab:

This is a small, very maneuverable remote with fine manipulator hands. It can be used for repair and general-purpose external work.

Since they are small enough to go through airlocks, crabs can be adjusted frequently and used for moving small items into and out of habitable environments. One problem is power-supply on a small machine. Depending on context this could be photovoltaic panels or fuel cells, but for local work it could also be plugged into an electric power cable — essentially an extension cord.

Crabs can also be used for public-relations by NASA. Several units can be donated to the United Nations to be used for demining in post-war zones.

Roller Slab:

This is a large, slab-shaped trusswork with wheels at the four corners, and rolling-pin shaped flywheels encaged within. The flywheels will be iron disks fitted onto an axle and locked together. Altogether, roller-slabs would mass many tons, most of it being the flywheels.

The Slab is ‘recharged’ by hooking up to an electric supply and spinning up the flywheels; I suppose it could also operate on an electric power cable, but the amount of current might be a problem. For simplicity, each wheel should be driven by a separate electric motor and the motors draw current from flywheel-driven generators.

I think this should be the basic platform on which both diggers and ore trucks are built. Ore trucks would include tilting hoppers, as dump trucks do. Diggers would include equipment which is also powered by the flywheels. The digging equipment could be designed as a modular attachment that can be added to any standard Slab.

Colonizing Luna, Part 6: Manufacturing & Mass-Driver

MANUFACTURING

Originally written: August 3, 2005. Previous | Overview | Next

Bulk manufacturing on Luna will need to be done by automated or remote-controlled machines. Humans-in-spacesuits is too costly, as are pressurized, breathable environments. To control for temperature and dust, factories probably should also be enclosed, so again, the geodesic dome design is easiest for maximum area covered using minimal materials. Also, in some cases it may be best to pressurize the factory with an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon; that way ambient gas temperature can also be maintained, and equipment will not have to be engineered for hard vacuum.

Another big issue is getting product back to earth. The launcher mechanism will be described in the next section. But whatever is launched will need to land intact on Earth. I recommend atmospheric-entry gliders, similar to the X-38 or Shuttle Orbiter design. For efficiency, these should be remote-operated, so it is probably easier to have them land on skids in the ocean.

ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS DRIVER:

Originally written: 3 August 2005. Previous | Overview | Next

This idea was already developed and tested by the Space Studies Institute in the mid-1970s. See the Wikipedia summary.

This is a large mag-lev track, with a huge mesh cradle mounted on the track. The loading/unloading point on the track is nearest to the Luna base.

The cradle accelerates its payload to Lunar escape velocity and releases the payload in a tangential trajectory. The trajectory will be bent somewhat by Lunar gravity in a spiral form as the payload moves up and out of the Lunar gravity-well. So the launch-point and speed need to be calibrated so that minimal energy is needed to manage the path of the payload once it is launched.

The mag-lev track will probably be the main consumer of electricity, hence the need to store electricity in compusators.

Catcher function:

This is essentially the reverse of the launcher function. The cradle accelerates to match the decaying-orbit velocity of the descending payload, which makes a low-energy landing on the cradle. Then the cradle can use the electromagnets to decelerate to a stop.

The launcher performs several functions:

a. Send drop-gliders back to Earth to deliver manufactured product.
b. Send manned vehicles back to Earth.
c. Launch very large interplanetary probes.
d. Receive supplies and, if safe, receive manned vehicles.

Colonizing Luna, Part 5: Local Resources

LOCAL RESOURCING:

Originally written: 8 August 2005. Previous | Overview | Next

A solar oven seems the obvious way to melt and separate Lunar ore. Beyond the initial Earth-built small equipment, Luna-built reflectors seem easy to manufacture, so at least that part of the system can be scaled easily.

The separating system might be more difficult to create on Luna. Don’t know the technology well enough to predict.

 

Lunar soil will yield lots of silicon and oxygen, and some metals and water.

The probable local deficit will be hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. Needed for organic processes and materials. Possibly enough hydrogen if surplus water is found.

Hydrazine will be hard to make locally beacuse it is N2H4. At some point in the future it may be easiest to gather ammonia (NH4)and hydrocarbons in bulk from gas giant atmospheres to bring nitrogen and carbon to the moon.

Xenon: useful in ion engines because of its high atomic mass. Next-heavier noble gas is radon, which is not so good because it is radioactive. However, if thorium is used for nuclear power, I think radon is one of its fission byproducts; so it may be more easily available through other processes.

PAVERS: Even if major products will be glass mirrors, photovoltaic wafers, and semiconductor chips, it is likely that there will be surplus SiO2/SiO4 ‘waste’. This can be formed into pavers to lay onto the surface and cover the dusty natural surface in high-traffic areas. Tracking dust into habitats and other areas with mechanical working parts is potentially a serious problem, so glass paving may be needed in large quantities.

In addition, a prodigious quantity of mirrors should be produced which can be assembled into several in-crater telescopes of enormous size. The mirrors should be mounted on adjustable stands so that the overall reflector can be refocused north or south to view a band, rather than just a single thin track directly overhead.

The first telescope will probably be built near to the south polar base, perhaps as a prototype for the subsequent telescopes to be positioned at different latitudes.

MOBILE MIRROR-ARRAYS: 20m reflectors could be mounted on standard creeper-slabs, together with a solar array, so that they can creep northward under their own power. They can reposition themselves within craters or sloped terrain to point further northward or southward; multiple units could also synchronize as very large arrays.

 

So again, the first thing to refine and use in large quantities is metal, to make the roller-slabs and other structures. Sufficient glass will be produced incidentally.

 

STORAGE:

Refined compounds will accumulate at a faster pace than it can be used, at least in some cases. Some things will be dangerous, like thorium, uranium, and nuclear waste shipped up from Earth. For long-term storage, these should be dissolved into molten silica, formed into blocks, and stored in piles covered with about a meter of plain soil (to pad against impacts).

Water-ice will also need to be shaded from sunlight so that it does not boil off. Sublimation may also be a problem, in which case ice may need to be stored in tanks.

Colonizing Luna, Part 4: Mining

MINING

Originally written: 8 August 2005. Previous | Overview | Next

Mainly this will include electric-powered, remote-controlled diggers and conveyor trucks or belts.

The first target for mining is to grade a level path for the maglev launcher track. This means that the mined material will not be specific; it will be generic Lunar soil, carried to the solar furnace.

A later mining target will be craters that need to be formed into parabolic surfaces to house massive telescope reflectors.

Available materials

What are the main elements and compounds available at the Lunar surface?

TiO2 (titanium oxide). Obviously, Ti is a good lightweight building material.
FeO2, other iron compounds. Strong, and magnetic. Cobalt might be better, but iron can be used for the mag-lev system.
H2O (ice). Vital for life-support systems, and if separated into H2 and O2, a good chemical propellant.
SiO2 (quartz, quartzite, rhyolite). Good for lenses and semiconductors.
SiO4 (basalt).
K (potassium)
Ca (calcuim)
Al (aluminum). Like titanium, it is a good structural material. Perhaps alloys with other materials will enable aluminum to remain ductile at low temperatures.
Mg (magnesium). Yet again, a light & strong metal. And again, alloys may maintain ductility or conductivity through a range of temperatures.

Missing elements

The main missing elements are nitrogen and carbon. These are needed for organic compounds used in life-support systems, plastics, and other flexible fabrics.

I do not know this technology well, nor am I sure that anyone knows it. The obvious problem is that on earth, the equipment used for mining and conveying is massive. How do we scale up from Earth-built small equipment to Luna-built, industrial-scale equipment?

Prospecting will also need to be done, and this means the location of mining will change and be difficult to predict. Mined material probably will need to be transported to a fixed-location refinery, so either conveyors will need to be extended out in various directions, or trucks will need to be used, or both.

The diggers and loader trucks can probably be controlled from Earth, since the functions are simple and the time-delay will not be a problem.

Politically, it may be most acceptable to mine the far-side since the mining will be messy and ugly to environmentalists who may complain about scarring the visible side of the moon.